L. Ding and R. Beichner, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res., **5** (2), 020103 (2009).

This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory,…

E. Torigoe and G. Gladding, PERC 2007 Proceedings, 200-203.

This paper is part of an ongoing investigation of how students use and understand mathematics in introductory physics. Our previous research [1] revealed that differences in score as…

E. Pollock, J. Thompson, and D. Mountcastle, PERC 2007 Proceedings, 168-171.

Students in an upper-level thermal physics course were asked to compare quantities related to the First Law of Thermodynamics along with similar mathematical questions devoid of all…